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Origin of Galaxy


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Summary of the Text

...........................................Philosophers as well as modern scientists have failed so far in proving beyond doubt ,the secret behind creation, existence and destruction of galaxies.  (A galaxy is a perfect unit of the Universe)  That is why, modern man is still entangled in incomplete theories.  A hypothetical model to overcome this dilemma, is introduced in this text, as Brahmasutra string theory. 
            Some of the topics discussed are:  The origin of space time entity, the  secret behind the origin of galaxies, the composition of galaxies, non –linear expansion of galaxies, reason behind the revolution of planets and stars, solstice and the reason behind it, why the crustal plates of earth float etc. 

All the topics are discussed with perfect harmony.  The ideas described in this text will definitely provide a right sense of direction to moderns scientists.  These ideas are useful not only to modern scientists, but to anyone who seeks the composition of galaxies that are unknown to the present world.

           These ideas are from the composition Brahmasutravaum Prapancha Srishti Rahasyavum (The secret behind the origin of galaxy )  written in Malayalam language by Mr. Dharmaj Mitra (Published in the year 2012).  To get authenticity for my novel ideas, the author has taken the liberty to adopt the inventions and discoveries of modern science as well as ideas from Brahmasutram.

Born in East Kallada of Kollam District of Kerala State, India.  Completed MA in History and MS in Psychotherapy.


The prime topic of this text is the hypothetical model of ‘how a galaxy is created, how it exists, and how it comes .to an end.
A galaxy is a wholesome and unique unit of the Universe.
One neutron-sphere explosion is essential for the creation of each galaxy.  The Big Bang Theory suit to a galaxy only, not to the entire Universe.
The Universe consists of trillions of galaxies.
Each galaxy originates, exists and disappears in its own space-time.
The energy released during the destruction of a galaxy increases the density of the Super-String.  As the density  attains a certain limit, the super string generates quarks.  Quarks make atoms, and atoms create neutron sphere.
A certain quantity of pressure is required for the combination of quarks, to form a neutron sphere. The deviation of energy and matter in the space provides this pressure.
As negative and positive quarks combine, they are destroyed their individuality.  The struggle to escape from this death, generates the ‘death movement’. Along with its movement, begins time.  This movement continues in zero gravity.  Following time, space (or atom) is created.
As the mass of a neutron sphere increased to that of our Milky Way, the atom at the centre exploded.  Thus          .originated the Milky Way.  This is true for other galaxies too.
Since the sphere that exploded was a rotating one, the parts spread out in four directions, instead of spreading in six directions.If an un revolving mass explode, its parts spreads only like the sun’s rays travels. If happened so every galaxy had no centre.

Our galaxy exists in four arms. This proves that, Milky Way split in to mainly four parts during its formation and continues to expand along these four arms.


With liberation, each part got its own independent centre. Due to gravitational force, nuclear fission continues in each of these centers. Each of the hand extends outwards, until there is not enough mass left for further nuclear fissions.


During the series of explosions, some parts move towards the space where the primary sphere was. They collide with one another to stabilize the centre of the Milky Way. The parts which move sided to the arms cause the disc-like shape of the galaxy. The parts which move outside cause the non-linear occurred expansion of the galaxy. That is one fourth to the primordial centre, two fourth to the disc and one forth to outward expansion.


As a galaxy wither away in the end, its space-time entity terminates (the manifest became unmanifest with in the period of Brahman time)


The unmanifest energy transforms into anthoer galaxy and creates a new space time entity.


Scientists claim that the gravitational force is that which make the planets and stars revolve. But this concept is wrong. Because collisions are happening in every galaxy. If stars and planets revolving and moving in specific path, there must not happen any collisions.


The Death –movement of the quarks is that make the planets and stars revolve. In Vedic philosophy, this force is called Kundalini Shakthi (‘Shakthi means force).


Anything that comes under the influence of gravitational force collapse. The high speed of planets, stars and satellites helps them to escape from the influence of gravitational attraction. The speed is provided by the death-movement.

Vedams are the compositions which revealed for the first time an authoritative knowledge on galaxies.  Vedic knowledge is described as divine, Superhuman etc.  According to the theory of reasoning (Tharkkapramanam) if a knowledge is divine, it must have a minimum of nine virtues.


Those virtues are given below :

The manifestation of the knowledge presented in the text, must had been present during the creation of mankind.
There should not be any human history in the text.
The text must include the truth of knowledge of creation.  That knowledge must favour eternal laws.  It must reveal galactic secrets and galactic features, without any doubt.
The knowledge must entirely be prudential and free from contradictions.
The knowledge must be able to explain the basic qualities of god, spirit and nature. 
The knowledge must be able to explain the basic qualities of god, spirit and nature. 
The knowledge must be global, eternal, pertinent to everything worldly, impartial and balance. Above all, it must be beneficial to every living thing, equally.
The divine knowledge, must equally belong to every human being in this world.  It must be free from discriminations based on caste, religion, tribe, colour of the skin etc.
In addition, the knowledge must be free from superstitions and ill practices.


Vedic compositions naturally have all these nine qualities.  They are oceans of knowledge. These primary oceans contain no genealogy.

             Group wise or community – wise, there are two kinds of men. 

                1. Common man      2. Seeker of truth

The intense longing in a persons, to know, is called curiosity. Such a person is described as curious.  The knowledge gained and experienced by a curious person, is called wisdom.

The source of complete wisdom is universal soul.  Another form of the universal soul exists as life (or soul), in a curious person.  It is through meditation that the link between individual soul and universal soul maintained.  As the individual should becomes one with the universal soul through meditation, wisdom flows from the universal soul through meditation, wisdom flows from the universal soul to the individual soul.  As a curious person receives wisdom in this manner, he becomes enlightened.  The knowledge given to the world by such an enlightened guru is known as spiritual knowledge. It is said that, Vedic sound was the first creation to show that the source of the divine sound – the source of knowledge – is the universal soul, which is the idol of consciousness itself.  Vedams are treasures of knowledge which were revealed in the minds of saints, who got divine experience.  That is why, Vedic compositions are described as Apaurusheyam (Superhuman).  In short, Vedic knowledge was not attained by ordinary man. 

The first text that explains the creation of galaxy is the Rig Vedam.  The first text in the library of human community is the Rig Vedam and the first word is fire.  The word fire was introduced to represent god.  Origin of galaxy is described in the Rig Vedam as :

From the power that inflames for ever, the law of creation and the law which governs the nature having the three qualities woke up, and were revealed.  From that mediation, the darkness before creation arose.  From that, an atmosphere with waves was revealed.  After that atmosphere, which is the womb of all the elements, arose time.  The one who controls all the worlds forever, the creator, created the sun, the moon, the heaven, the atmosphere surrounding all these, and all the other luminous domains, as in the Poorva Kalpam  (like happened in the past) by determining day and night.

One thing that needs special attention here is that, Vedam says that time started even before creation.  But the Big Bang Theory of modern science is of the opinion that space-time originated after creation or after Big Bang
Galactic knowledge commenced in the western countries, only by the end of 13th century.  Copernicus (1473 – 1543), Tyko Brahe (1546 – 1601), Galileo Galeeli (1564 – 1642) and Isac Newton (1642 – 1727) were the astronomers who laid the foundation of western galactic knowledge.

In fact, Indian saints had used the word ‘globe’ even thousand years of before the westerners found out that the earth is spherical.  Saint Deerkha Thamas established this clearly in the Asyamavamiya Manthram  (‘ Manthram’ means a vedic utternance’).  Both in the Vishnu Puranam and Geetha Govindam (by Jayadevan), earth is specially referred as a globe.

In Soorya Sidhantham, an ancient astronomical composition, this matter is explained as :

“Since human beings are short in stature, the land around them appears to be circular. But, the limitation of their eye-sight prevents them from seeing beyond a hundredth of the surface area of earth.  So, earth appears to them as flat.  In reality, earth is a globe.

According to Rig Vedam, Earth and Sun attract each other, and earth revolves around the sun.  Translation of the verse is: “Since the sun attracts earth towards it, earth never moves away from its attraction.”
The Yajur Vedam describes the attractive power as: “This globular earth along with its matter, revolves around the Sun.  All the worlds (planets) exist permanently in their paths, because of the existence and gravitational force of the sun.”

It is made clear in a verse of Aithreya Brahmananam that, it was the earth that revolved around the sun, and not vice versa.  It may be translated as : “Sun never rises or sets.  Sunset means, the downward motion of the earth at the other end.  The reverse process is sunrise.  Sunset and sunrise are mere feelings.”

Rig Vedam (in 8 – 12 – 30 ) says that, all the planets revolve around the sun – “ A centre was created and the sun was placed there.  Then placed all the worlds (planets) to revolve around it, with its force.”  

We consider  Sir Issac Newton as the founder of Gravitational Theory.  But, gravitation was mentioned centuries before Newtons’s time in a composition known as Sidhartha Siromani.  It can be translated as  “This earth has a special force with which it can attract everything towards it, and keep around it, Nearer the earth, this force is more and vice versa.”

Moreover, Rig Vedam too mentions the movements of earth.  It says that, not only it revolves around the sun like a wheel that runs along its path, but revolves itself like a wheel too.  About  the self-revolution of the sun, Yajur Vedam says. “The sun revolves along its own centre keeping an attractive force on all the worlds (planets), and penetrating its divine rays in all the living and non-living things.  It does not revolve around any world (planet).

In short, whatever the modern scientists discovered, had been found out by ancient Indian saints, much earlier.  But, of course there are mistakes in Vedic compositions regarding galactic knowledge, like the errors done by modern scientists.  We have to admit this fact too.
The knowledge of our saints were correct only within the realm of the solar system.  Their knowledge beyond the solar system were, very limited.

Both the Vedic saints and the modern scientists established that, gravitation is the  root cause of the movements of stars, planets and satellites along certain paths as well as revolves its own axis.
According to Chain Bang Theory the death-movement of the primordial matter is the reason behind the movements of stars, planets and satellites.

Issac Newton claimed that due to the mutual attraction, stars, planets and satellites keep certain distances among one another.  Einstein stated that, due to the mutual giving and taking of the gravitons among them, stars, planets and satellites rotate on their own axis.

Suppose we agree to the claim that, planets and stars move along certain paths because of mutual attraction.  Then what about Pluto! It disobeys this law, while revolving in the solar system.

Since Pluto has a tilt of 17.20 with its orbital plane, it can move by a distance of 125 crore Km away from its orbital plane.  This distance is approximately equal to the distance between Sun and Saturn.  Pluto takes 247.7 years to revolve once around the sun.  During a period of 20 years (approximately), sun was nearer to Pluto than Neptune(from November 28, 1978 to May 12, 2000).  Had Neptune come in this way, when Pluto trespassed in to its orbit, they could collide with each other, or one of them could swallow the other.  This instance shows that planets do not move according to the gravitational theory.

Remember the words of Stephen Hawking that, if we find a single instance in contradiction to the genuineness of a theory, we can straight way declare the futility of that theory. If so, we can come to the conclusion that, it is not the gravitational force that causes the movements of planets, stars, satellites etc.

From August 14th to 25th of 2005, more than 2500 astronomers of IAU (International Astronomical Union) met at Prague, to discuss the misbehavior of Pluto, as a planet.  After prolonged discussions, Pluto was ousted from the list of planets.  But, still Pluto revolves around the sun. 

The unique deviation of Pluto and its reason(s) must be studied on the basis of Chain Bang Theory.  Planets of the solar system were not formed by an explosion of the Sun or from molecular clouds.  They are scattered parts of the Sun, when some star or planet collided with the sun.  The effect of an explosions extremely different from that of an impact.  Any object spreads out in six directions,  when it explodes.  On the contrary, if it is collided by another object, the scattered parts move only in a single direction.  As such an external impact took place, the lateral part of the sun which was moving with maximum speed, parted with the parent mass and moved away to the maximum distance possible.  That part is Pluto.  The lateral speed of the Sun is the factor, which gave Pluto the maximum displacement.

As Sun provided the natural movement to its nine planets, Earth gave it to its Moon .  When separated from the Sun, Earth and Moon were a single entity.  Later, as Earth attained spherical shape by gravitation, the part of earth which was projected like a lump got separated.  The reason is that, Earth did not have enough gravitational force to keep the lump with it, because of its own lateral speed.  The lump separated from the Earth became the Moon.  All planets got their own moons in the same fashion.  The speed of each moon is the factor that keeps it free from the gravitation of its planet.  (Anything that comes under the grip of gravitation, collapse.)

Any artificial synchronous satellite that is projected with the help of a rocket moves along its orbit around the Earth at a speed of 106,600 Km./hr. This is the surface speed of Earth.  It is the natural movement or the death movement of Earth, that helps the satellite to do so.

Einstein stated that stars, planets and their satellites spin on their own axis due to the exchange of gravitons, because of gravitational attraction.  If so, the birds, aeroplanes, rockets, artificial satellites etc.  which keep on moving in the atmosphere without touching the Earth, also must spin on their own axis while moving.  Since such a movement does not take place, his deduction must be wrong.

The Andromeda Galaxy is at a distance of 22.5 million light years (approximately) away from us, at present.  In fact, it is travelling towards us at a speed of 30.2 lakh Km per hour.  Astronomers say it is due to gravitational force.  But at the same time, science itself agrees that, both these galaxies do not have the sufficient masses to acquire this speed.  That means, it is not gravitational force that causes the movement of stars, planets etc.
Human history commences with the manifestation of Vedam, the ‘Spring of Knowledge’.  It is considered that, all the other languages of the world as well as mathematical knowledge were developed from Sanskrit, the first language of mankind.  There is a proper reason behind this consideration.

In Mythrayanee Samhita (3-8-3- and 4 – 1- 10) also, there is a remark that, living beings originated in Earth at Tibet (Thrivishtapam).

At the end of the Ice Age, Tibet emerged from water at first, which was the highest land form of the time.  This is mentioned as the Adi Koorma concept. (‘Adi’ means first, and ‘Koormam’ means turtle) According to this concept, the first turtle lifted Earth from water.  That particular spot was known as Manasa Sarass.        
Now, let us explore the history of Earth.

Once upon a time, our Earth was covered by ice.  As we know Africa, Himalayam etc. are not far away from the equator.  As maximum sunlight falls on the equatorial region, ice present in that region started to melt first.  Earth’s surface started to come out along the equator, and subsequently water sources were defined.

As we know, the  drifting of crustal plates started as ice began to melt at the equatorial region.  Actually, the Himayalyam was formed due to the collision of two major plates – the Gondawana Land and the Lorasia.
The emergence of the Himalyam from beneath the glaciers and water, ignited the idea of the Adi Koormam,  as mentioned in the Mythrayanee Samhitha. The first part of earth, that thus emerged from glaciers and water is Mount Everest.

Creatures originated in the region, where land appeared by the evacuation of water.  Man, too, originated here.  As more and more ice melted away, human being and his culture spread to both sides.   According to Vedic concept, this spread commenced, approximately, 197 crore years ago.

According to modern day scientists, human being originated from a single DNA molecule, some 300 core years ago.  Human Genome Map gives evidence to the fact that, human beings are the off-springs of the first mother Lucy, who lived some 30 lakh years ago in Africa.  It is because of the splitting and drifting of crustal plates, that human community spread into different races and regions.  We can find out Lucy’s ancestors in Himalayan layers.

Plate tectonics , too is a result of Earth’s gravitational force.  The Chain Bang theory is put forward by connecting the space-time entity, origin of the galaxy, solstice, and plate tectonics in a single thread.  All these phenomena could be linked harmoniously, in the  Chain Bang  Theory.

There is a Upanishad hymn, called ‘Veda Aveda’.  By quoting this hymn, Sri Sankara Bhagavad Padar encourages each seeker of truth to continue in his/her effort.   He say,  “While in our act of pursuit in seeking theoretical truth of Brahmasutra knowledge, even if had any mistake in Vedic knowledge, it can be neglected.”

I request the enthusiastic scientific community to face these ideas boldly and to bring out the ultimate truth, so that the  Chain Bang  Theory can be elevated from the level of hypothetical ideas to that of scientific theories.  I hope, such an effort will cause progress and prosperity to the coming generations.

For Regard

Kollam  18.9.2013              ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Dharmaj Mitra



Chapter 1

The Secrets of the Origin of Our Galaxy
(A Hypothesis Model)


Chain Bang Theory

In vedic or the ancient scriptures of Bharath, the whole sensory-visual world is described as the “prapancham”. It is the “Brahman” which is the originator of this “prapancham” and thus, being born off Brahman, this Galaxy is said to have arisen from “Brahmandam” or the cosmic-egg.

The modern science by and large has studied the physical behaviour of galaxies which comprise this “brahmandam”. And certainly, they say, the universe is made of Billions of galaxies, stars and their collision debris.

Here we look at, deriving inspiration from the ancient “Brahma Sutras” as well as the modern science, the birth, growth and death of galaxies. The units of time as per the Brahma Sutras are given and then it is used to explain that the “big-bang” like explosion is related only to the life-cycle of each and every galaxy, and not to the origin of the entire universe as the “Big Bang” seemingly explains.

This is seen as the mother universe giving rise to several “baby” galaxies in several parts of the universe. The word “brahmam” or “brahmandam” is used in this text Only to mean a galaxy.

Also, it appears that the last recourse of the “modern science” to explain away everything is the “String Theory”. Now the string theory of modern science is a serious attempt to tailor quantum mechanics and general relativity. Many contemporary physicists believe if the theory Progresses into predicting observable phenomena, then it could really turn up as a fundamental model of the all the natural phenomena of the universe, including the evolution of the universe itself. Referring to Wikipedia from a commoners approach, on finds that:

“String theory posits that the electrons and quarks within an atom are not 0-dimensional objects, but made up of 1-dimensional strings. These strings can oscillate, giving the observed particles their flavor, charge, mass and spin. Among the modes of oscillation of the string is a massless, spin-two state—a graviton. The existence of this graviton state and the fact that the equations describing string theory include Einstein's equations for general relativity mean that string theory is a quantum theory of gravity”

In this context here is a quote from Wikipedia on “Brahma Sutras” which actually means Cosmic String.

“The Brahma sutras (Sanskrit: ), also known as the Vedanta Sutras , are one of the three canonical texts of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. A thorough study of Vedanta requires a close examination of these three texts, known in Sanskrit as the Prasthanatrayi, or the three starting points. The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyaya prasthana or "Logic-based starting point",[citation needed] of the above triplet (Sanskrit Nyaya: logic, order). Thus they are also referred to as the Yukti prasthana, since Yukti also means reasoning or logic. While the Upanishads (Sruti prasthana, the starting point of revelation) and the Bhagavad-Gita (Smriti prasthana, the starting point of remembered tradition) are the basic source texts of Vedanta, it is in the Brahma sutras that the teachings of Vedanta are set forth in a systematic and logical order.

In a strictly vedic context, “sutra” indicates a verse, that is “threaded” with the succeeding verses. Though it may appear a bit surrealistic in our interpretation, it is still not very irrelevant to give a translation of a verse from Brahma Sutra as follows:

“Oh Gauthama, (the subtle pancha bhoota principle of air called) vayu is the string .It is by this string that this world and the higher worlds as well as all their components threaded together”.

Knowing that our humanity’s vedantic ancestors had devised so many ways of ruling over the elements of nature as is excellently explained in many texts including Patanjaly sutras, it is no surprise to learn that they had a simpler, practical and disciplined approach to control nature starting first with one’s own nature. The fact that even today millions of Indians use atleast 6 to 8 parameters such as Yuga(age), Samvatsara (year), Divas (day), Tithi, Yamam, Hora, Muhurtham and so on to specify time accurately and used widely in their most popular and highly accurate use in areas such as Astrology and Astrophysics.

As an additional illustration to the fact that traditional Hindus daily use such a highly systematic and ACCURATE space-time keeping for their rituals, may be remembering their ancestors, deciding and conducting auspicious events such as upanayan, betrothal, coming off of age of girls, marriage, or other occasions such as death or ancestral ceremonies.

Thus for example the ritual of ancestral feeding the main priest pin points the time and space of the ritual through a sankalpa (a conceptual space & time keeping) as follows:

"Dviteeya parardhe - in the 2nd half of Brhama's life Svetavaraha kalpe - in the kalpa of Sveta-Varaha Vaivaswatha manvantare - in the reining period of the current manu Vaivaswatha Ashta Vimsati tame - in the 28th mahayuga of the current manavantara Kaliyuge - in this kali yuga Prathame Padhe - in the first quarter of this yuga Jamboodveepe - this denotes the place where the ritual is performed. India was known as Jambudveepa Bharata Varshe, Bharata Kande - in the land of Bharat
Sakhabde Mero, Dakshine Parsve-to the South of the Meru mountain
Asmin Varthamane Vyavaharike-in the current period now reigning
Prabhavadi Shasti Samvatsaranam Madya - among the cycle of 60 years starting from Prabhava Nama Samvatsare - the name of the year in the 60 year Hindu calendar Ayane -Dakshinayane (Aadi to Marghazi) or Uttarayane (Thai to Aani)

Ritou - denotes the 6 seasons or Ritus - Vasantha, Greeshma, Varsha, Sharadh, Hemantha and Shishira (includes Spring,Summer,Autumn,Winter) Mase - one of the 12 months

Pakshe - either Shukla Paksham (day after Amavasya ie,New Moon till and including Pournami, ie, Full Moon) or Krishna Paksham (day after Pournami till and including Amavasya)

Subha Thithou - one of the 15 days between Pournami and Amavasya ( Thus Full Moon to New Moon we have Pornami, Prathama, Dvithiya, Trithiya, Chaturthi, Panchami, Shasti, Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadasi, Dwadashi, Trayodasi, Chaturdasi, or Amavasya,)

Vasara Yuktayam - one of the days of the week from Sunday to Saturday (Bhanu, Soma, Bhowma, Soumya, Guru, Brugu and Sthira)

Nakshatra Yuktayam - the day's star or Nakshatram. (27 are there)

After saying the above the name of the ritual is said and conducted by the head priest.

Regarding a theory of the origin of the Galaxy ,we know and believe ,that there is only One Truth behind all that we perceive ,experience and conceive. And that has to be the consistent Truth today, tomorrow and forever.
And, we have seen the limitations of the current models of science.It is still possible and required to dare to propose a hypothetical model based on the experimental and theoretical wisdom of the contemporary sciences, as well as the cardinal principles of those ancient vedantic visionaries of humanity, as scriptured for example in Brahma Sutras,Bhagvad Gita and related texts.

This “ Chain Bang Theory ” has three parts


A Presence of the Primordial Energy required for the creation of the Galaxy (Prag Energy)
The accretion and interaction of this energy (Hiranya Garbham or the Cosmic Egg)
The birth of the Cosmic Forces, Laws, interactions and the manifestations (Panch Boothas)

1. Prag Energy

It is the unmanifest Conscious Energy, ie., it is both Consciousness and Energy. Brahma Sutra describes this state as follows:



Brahman is condensed consciousness
The accretion and interaction of this energy (Hiranya Garbham or the Cosmic Egg)
If Brahman is accepted as the cause of all causes, including itself as well as of the Galaxy, then all theories of the contemporary sciences can be unified.
Vibrations at this subtle ,condensed consciousness is the cause of the Galaxy
In “creation”, first the “Subtle Pancha bhoothas of ” space, air, fire, water and earth originated .Theses are “subtle” because of their intangibility ,while the real “Panch Bhoothas” of Space to earth came from these subtle ones.
The order of creation is “space first (from the Virat Purusha or the cosmic person rising from the Hiranya Garbha),from which the other subtle and “real” panch bhootas rose.
The order of dissolution will be the reverse of creation ie., Earth dissolves in water,water in air etc.,
Mind came from the satwik part of all the Subtle Panch Bhootas (as per Tattwa Bodha of Sankaracharya)
Prana or the Cosmic Vibration Came from the rajasik part of the Subtle Panch Bhoothas
Physical World came from the Tamask Part of the Subtle Panch Bhoothas.
Virat Purusha is much larger than the manifest universe, which is only one-fourth, while the ternal part of Purusha is three-fourth.


From these indications in Brahma Sutra Bhashya (as well as the Tattwabodha, both interpreted lately by Sri Sankaracharya) we can infer the Primary Cause, the forces and the laws of its transformation.

2. Brahmandam (The Cosmic Embryo )

Brahmandam or the Cosmic Embryo is the condensed consciousness part of the Brahman ,equivalent to the manifest galaxy. This is the “Prag Energy” apparently as an embryonic egg. Brahma sutra describes these as follows:

1. Brahman/Brahmandam (egg) creates name-forms
2. Brahman has two forms :Manifest and Unmanifest, the Manifest source is what we call Brahmandam
3. Whatever is the source of the Galaxy is Brahman or Brahmandam.
4. The Brahman is the source of all diverse forces of the Galaxy and the “creation” of the Galaxy is its work.
5. Forces of motion results from “degrees of freedom”
6. Everything in the Galaxy “becomes” with the vibration or oscillation of prana
7. Brahman is the result of the desire to know itself.
8. From the “anhus” or the “particles (of the bhoothas) matter is born.

It is the unmanifest Brahman that ,through the Brahmandam becomes the manifest world out of “nothing” and then ....explodes as the manifest world.

3. Manifest Galaxy

The nature of the manifest Galaxy arising out of the explosion of the embryonic Galaxy,that is ,the Brahmandam is expressed by Brahma Sutra as follows:

1. Creation implies diversity, if the diversity ceases, there is no creation
2. Creation means evolution of the forces, implying there will be a future devolution of the forces
3. Death or Destruction means devolution of the constituents
4. Total Dissolution of the Galaxy happens ultimately into Brahman
5. There are as much diversities as the forces of diversification
6. Devolution is the exact opposite of Evolution
7. The end of devolution is the re-production of the subtle ,concentrated consciousness or Brahman
8. Cosmos is composed of “Consciousness Particles” of subtle Panch Bhoothas, because nescient cannot be made operative ....without conscient.

9. The Galaxy arising from “actions” vanishes by the enlightenment on its origin itself (to the enlightened)
10. No “Consciousness Particle” of subtle Panch Bhoothas can be “idle” till it regains its freedom from all its bound states
11. Originally for the Brahman, all directions were same,hence there was no space.
12. Also Brahman that was unchanging, there was no time;time came into existence when the changing part of the ,,,,,,Brahman evolved incomparison with the Unchanging, unmanifest Part.

The existent manifest Galaxy, devolves into its unmanifest original state,which then evolves into new manifest Galaxy. The timescale during which the manifest Galaxy
Exists is called the Age Of Brahma.

What is Brahman ?

In this current Age of Science, there has to be a “scientific basis” for any postulate.Brahmasutras, first composed by Sage Badarayanan, remained as a conundrum since its interpretors could not highlight this Science behind it. Also, the fact that it was simultaneously interpreted as a non-dual “advaita” spiritual philosophy as well as a philosophy of physical Galaxy” .One finds the emphasis on this second aspect in Bhagvad Gita as explained by Sri Krishna in verse 14/3

“mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbham dadhamy aham
sambhavah sarva-bhutanam tato bhavati bharata"
The total material substance, called Brahman, is my womb, and it is that Brahman that I impregnate, making possible the births of all bhoothas (materials & beings), O Arjuna.

Brahmasutra emphasizes spirituality, while Bhagvad Gita emphasizes material aspect of the Galaxy. Infact it is in the sentient beings that both the spirituality as well as the materialisms unite. From that point of view Gita exhorts that the infinite womb of the Galaxy is the Brahman and all the bhoothas, material world ,and beings originate from it .From a physical perspective this could be seen different from the “absolute God”.
It is like seeing the differences between Grandfather, Father, Son and Grandson though
All are manifestation of the same Universal Soul. It also illustrates the Unity in diversity and the diversity in Unity.
Gita, in this way attributes the physical view to the spiritual view. When Krishna says the Great Brahma is my Womb, one can also infer that Brahma is the Source of creation of the Galaxy. Before creation it is empty. And science tells that universe rose from emptiness. For a baby to be born, there has to be union of the egg and the sperm. Similarly, for the birth of the Galaxy, there has to be the union of opposing (+/-) forces .Seemingly, both the Sciences and Bhagvadgita assert that manifest Galaxy came into existence by the evolution of the union of these forces.

Thus, while Brahma Sutra asserts that the source of the Galaxy is the Condensed Consciousness, Bhagvadgita implies it as a “physical womb”. Thus the Condensed Consciousness and the Condensed Matter Coincide in the same entity that is the origin Of the manifest Galaxy, possibly existing in a solid ,embryonic form.This approach only can provide a logico-linguistic framework for further theoretical studies.

Creation is origination and Dissolution is its reverse. Also by understanding that the original particles combine consciousness and matter, we can easily explain the source of Natural or Physical Laws, which created the manifest world. It is possible that such Primordial subtle particles of “panch bhootas” having material and consciousness Nature together, that give rise to fundamental physical particles leading to the formation of the Hydrogen Atoms, which acted as the primal mass of the original Galaxy.

Wikipedia states : “In the Standard Model of particle physics, the elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (including quarks, leptons, and their antiparticles), and the fundamental bosons (including gauge bosons and the Higgs boson). Although elementary particles are not made up of smaller particles, some of

them may change to lighter particles (according to specific rules).

It is such combining rules that constituted the hydrogen atoms and thus the whole universe is filled by quarks and fermions, according to this view. And the String theory postulates that these came from the super strings of the vacuum. The super string is approximately few trillionths the size of the quark. Yet the ability of the string theory to fuse Quantal and Relativistic world appears promising, despite the fact that there has been no serious experimental validation of the string theory.

“On the theory side, black hole physics looks the same as quark-gluon plasma physics,” said physicist David Mateos,an ICREA research professor at the University of Barcelona in Spain, who also presented his work at the conference. “The fact that the same theory can be used to describe physics with gravity and physics without gravity is truly fascinating.”(ref: http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/breaking/ 2011/06/15/string-theory-may-hold-answers-about-quark-gluon-plasma)

If “consciousness” is attributed to strings, then there is a real link to unification. Contemporary Science has observed that universe is 73% dark energy, 23% dark matter and manifest universe only 4%. During devolution, manifest Galaxy decomposes to dark matter and dark energy.
It is appropriate to remember the daily chant of millions of hindus across the world, which is remniscent of this role of “dark matter and dark energy”:




It tells


A                                     B                            C


Fig : 1

Shows A = Condensed Consciousness (Brahman) , B= Brahmandam ( Cyan Color The Condensed “Consciousness + Dark Matter” ) C= The Dense Galaxy in green
With separated consciousness or the physical laws as blue boundary.
Figure explains the hypothetical formation of the primitive high density Galaxy as in C ,which will explode into the manifest Galaxy.



Fig: 2

When the density of the dark energy(green) increases beyond a point it leads to the creation of dark matter (brown area) ,which on saturation leads to the creation of matter (white)
It is plausible that when the Galaxy decomposes ,it changes the density of the dark matter and the dark energy, and possibly when the density of the dark energy increases beyond a point it leads to the creation of dark matter, which on saturation leads to the creation of matter and when the density of matter in its most primitive form crosses a saturation point it becomes subatomic particles and then as atoms.
The “mind” part of the Brahman now exerts its influence on the manifest world as the Laws of Science governing Strong, Weak, Electro-Weak, Electro-Magnetic and Gravitational forces at the corresponding levels.
Brahma Sutra terms the causes of the destruction (or dissolution) of the Galaxy as the “devolution –thrust” and that of the evolution of the unborn Galaxy from its seed as the “growth thrust”. One can conjecture that under this growth thrust of the primitive manifest Galaxy quarks evolve and “combine” to form the atoms. When saturation is attained,these are operated by gravitation forming the compact super density “egg” of the Galaxy which explodes as posited in Big-Bang.

It appears there is a difference as to the developmental stage in which the “explosion” occurred. This Brahma Sutra Conceptual Model as in Fig 1 posits that the embryonic high density Galaxy of mass equivalent to the visible Galaxy was formed initially itself and this exploded into the manifest Galaxy. But the current scientific models assume that the explosion resulted from a super-high density universe of the size comparable to that of a proton .It is this latter assumption that leads to inconguruities in and among the models depicting the evolution of the Galaxy.

The Space time in Chain bang Or The Cosmic String Model

According to Big-Bang theory, space and time evolved after the explosion. Einstein also supports this premise. But it is only appropriate, as per this Chain Bang Or The Cosmic String Model space and time evolved before the explosion. Such a conceptual approach can unify all the constitutent parts of the Galaxy.
So it is hypothesized in this Chain Bang Or The Cosmic String Model that the saturation pressure led to the union of quarks and the manifest Galaxy.

The following image from Wikipedia clearly explains the formation of baryons .


Fig 3.A proton, composed of two up quarks and one down quark.

So ,as the matter particles, the baryons such as protons or neutrons are formed, quarks “die”, very much as the “copper” dies in the formation of the “copper Sulphate”. And, end of the “quark’ also signifies the “origin of time”. Now the “pranic oscillations” of the component quarks leads to further accretion of matter. Freedom causes Motion. Motion of the boundary space is growth or accretion as dense mass. Either way, motion causes time. So death of quark signifies creation of space as “matter” is created, apart from the birth of time. This is how the origin of the matter ,time and space is construed here. Further accretion of matter creates super dense state in which energy and matter are dominant. As the pranic oscillations continued the Galaxy had condensed mass equivalent to the current mass of the Galaxy. This pranic oscillations could be called the

Kundalini Vibrations mentioned often in tantric literature (see eg., Sir John Woodroffe, the a British Vedantist whose works created a deep and wide interest in Hindu philosophy and Yogic practices.).
The Lemaitre’s Model assumes that the embryonic universe explodes due to internal pressure when a “Critical Mass” is reached as justified by Lemaitre in his works on the Explosion of the Super dense Neutron Balls. Borrowing from the observation that the nuclei of mass numbers above 250 are unstable and hence an initial “neutron ball” of 1078 or 1079 Neutrons are extremely fissile and hence explodes, with portions of the neutron mass becoming protons ,which with electrons became the mass we know today.

This aspect of Lemaitre’s model can be retained as a link in the Chain Bang Model we are discussing,though the former does not deal with the origin of the neutron ball,or the “four arms” of our Galaxy, the central bulge of the galaxies, or theirs as well as the planet’s rotation .

Now let us examine the evolution of the manifest Galaxy: the Lemaitre’s or the Gamow’s model cannot explain the formation of the central disc of the galaxies. Not only that, it cannot explain the vortex of the galactic mass around its core. And, in this approach, the “debris” of the explosion should be moving equally in all the six directions For example one need to know how our Milky Way, became a “barred” oblate rotating disc with 100,000-120,000 Light Years in diameter and about 10,000 Light Years in thickness .Our Brahma Sutra or the Cosmic String model and the Big Bang model recognize an explosion. But what is the difference between these two approaches?
To explain the central disc and the core ,in our Brahma Sutra Theory we posit that after the pranic oscillations (death movement) the rotating sphere ejected the four fragments that further exploded till each arm exhausted its explosion potential. And we assume that one fourth (or a fraction) of the exploding discs recoiled back to the centre and formed the central core and it become bulge.

That is, the Brahma Sutra Model hereby assumes that the initial oscillations create the rotation of particles and the continued mass creation by the Quark Condensation cause a superdense, rotating ball that sends out the exploding fragments in the four ,not six, directions.

The Scientific Model of the birth of galaxies is somewhat as follows: Our galaxy is an ensemble of stars of differing ages and size, embedded in a sparser interstellar medium.

Our Milky Way is a middle order galaxy inhabited by 100 to 400 billion stars .Its diameter is about 120,000 Light Years and central thickness of about 20,000 Light Years. Because of the dust and dense distribution of stars, this zone is not easily visible to most telescopes. Our milky belong to the category of a barred spiral galaxy having the following three distinct zones: The Central bar and the bulge, the surrounding disc and the halo around. Sun revolves around the galactic centre in a period of 200 million years.


“In a pre-print submitted in January 19, 2011, a team of astronomers reported that the supermassive central black holes of galaxies appear to be dependent on the size of their central bulge of stars, rather than on the size of their spiral disk or "pseudobulges." Supermassive black holes have been found at the centers of nearly all galaxies observed, and larger black holes have been found in larger galaxies (those surrounded by the largest dark matter halos). The astronomers found, however, that galaxies without a bulge -- even if they are embedded in massive dark matter halos -- contain very low mass black holes, if any. Hence, they concluded that the growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies is primarily dependent on the formation of a central bulge, rather than to the surrounding mass of dark matter (MPE news release; and Kormendy et al, 2011)”

Some astronomers believe that the Central Bulge was the first massive component of the Milky Way galaxy to have developed, earlier and faster than the thick disk. Although the central bulge formed relatively quickly on a timescale of around a billion years, the bulk of the metal-rich stellar population of the Galactic bulge appears to be very old, with an age of around 10 ± 2.5 billion years (Zoccali et al, 2003; and Ortolani et al, 1995).

“The Solar System is located within the disk, around two thirds of the way out from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars in the inner ˜10,000 light-years are organized in a bulge and one or more bars. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A* which is likely to be a supermassive black hole”.(See Wikipedia).
How Chain Bang Model Explains The Differential age of the Stars in Galaxy?
Why there is wide distribution of the ages of stars in the disc of the Milky Way.
Here the Chain Bang underpins its hypothesis that newer and newer galaxies and clusters originate from the super pressure of the dark matter and dark energy continually, like the bubbles in a newly opened coke bottle. Each bubble being a “Brahmandam” of the galaxy in the Chain Bang model.

When the Brahmandam explodes into two, three, four and so on parts, they evolve into the arms of the evolving spiral galaxy, which gets its rotation from the initial oscillations. In Chain Bang we postulate that the disc is comprised of the stars that are formed by the successive clashes and mergers of the stars and planets of the blown away bits. The bulge in the centre is thus explained as due to the collision of the stellar mass in this region.
Approximately it is possible that one fourth of the source mass of the galaxy was centered in the core, two fourth in the disc and one fourth as outwardly expanding

Mass contributing to the expansion (of the Galaxy) due to the spreading arms (like in a speed governor of the earlier cars) of the galaxy.

While the entire milky way rotates around its centre ,its constituent stars and their planets also rotate in the same direction. This rotational force is explained as due to remnants of the original “Pranic Oscillation” (Death Movement) .
Key Points On the Origin Of Solar System As per the Current Scientific Models.

The current model is that Solar System began about 4.568 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud of about 150 K . Most of the collapsing mass collected in the centre, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a proto planetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.

Sun rotates on its axis with a periodicity of a month, also revolves around the centre of the galaxy with a periodicity of about 200 million years.

Brahmic Dissolution

Brahma sutras describe existence and maintenance to the created (portions of the Galaxy) the dissolution of the existent. Thus the maintenance, as well as the destruction or dissolution process start the very moment of the Galaxy is created. This is so because the primordial particle cannot lie latent till its “liberation” is attained.
And so, the existence is only a relative, transient state. In dissolution, each of the crated “modules” are deconstructed,

The causes of dissolution are described in the Brahma Sutra and related texts as follows:

1. Creation arises out of union of forces and circumstances, hence future dis-union is assured.
2. “Death” is the departure of the unification of forces and causes for existence.
3. The primordial particles do not lie “bound” till “liberation”
4. Galaxy ,created by the “action” de-constructs by its opposite in “dissolution
5. “Urge for freedom” causes motion
6. “Pranic Vibration” maintains everything in the Galaxy.

As each fundamental particle formed from “light” and goes liberated “back into light” ,one cycle or a term of Brahma ends. And at the acme of concentrated “light” of liberated particles, new Galaxy is born. If many “Galaxies” formed, then due to insufficient density, there would be many small “Galaxies”. But the expansion rate and the mass density of a “Galaxy” created by high density starting point will be equally high .

The Time Scale Of Brahma

Connotation to the sound “brahma” is vast, due to the core tenets of the advaitic theory behind the Brahma Sutras. In the following is given the different time scales applicable to cosmogony of the brahma sutras.
It starts with “Ida” which is the time taken by a needle to pass between two consecutive leaves when pressed together. Ida means between.



1 “Ida” .......................= ”1“Alpa Kalam.
30 “Alpa Kalam”         =   1 “Thruti”
30 “Thruti”                 =   1 “Kala”
30 “Kala”                   =    1 “Kashta’ or   “Nimisha”
4 “Nimisha”                =    1“Ganitha”
10“Ganitha”               =    1“Nedu Veerpu”
6 “Nedu Veerpu”        =    1 “Vinazhika”
60 “Vinazhika”           =    1“Ghatika”
60 “Ghatika”              =    1 “Divas” (one day)
15 “Divas”                  =    1 “Paksha”
2 “Paksha”                 =    1“Chandra Mas” 
12 “Chandra Mas”     =     1“Varsha” (Year)
1“Varha”                    =    1 “Ahorathram”
300 “Ahorathram”     =     1“Deava Varsham”
4800 “Deava Varsham” = 1 “Kritayugam”
3600 “Deava Varsham” = 1  “Threta Yugam”
2400 “Deava Varsham” = 1 “Dwapara Yugam”
1200 “Deava Varsham” =  1 “Kaliyugam
12000 “Deava Varsham”= 1 “Chaturyugam”
71“Chaturyugam”        =  1 “Manvatharam”
14 “Manvatharam”       =  1“Kalpam”
2 ”Kalpam”                   =  1 “Brahma Divas” (Brahman’s One day)
360 “Brahma Divas”    =    1 “Brahma Varsh” (Brahman’s One year)
120 “Brahma Varsh”  =     1 “Brahma Ayus” (Brahman’s Life Time)


Ayus or “lifetime” of a person is the time duration in which his Atman/Jiva (soul) dwells in his body. Even if the “dead or inert body” is preserved for a long time, it is not taken for counting the Ayus. Similarly the ayus or lifetime of the Galaxy is the duration of its physical existenceduring which it emits light.. And from this view , planets and satellites are inert objects too. It is the life of the stars and galaxies that send out light and heat that is to be taken as the “Ayus” or age or lifetime of the system. Thus for example our sun can burn another few billion years, but the planets may continue in the dark as inert objects even after the last flicker on the sun is snuffed out.

Summary of the Cosmic String or The Chain Bang Theory

In the following is an account of the evolution of galaxies according to What we call the “Chain Bang” concept, where the formation of the galaxies are Comparable to the fizz and formation of bubbles in a newly opened soda bottle.

1. The flow of remnant energies from the dead galaxies increases the density of super strings
2. The above condition creates excess pressure and drive for the creation of positive and negative quarks.
3. Quarks unite under pressure
4. Union of quarks creates matter at the “death” of quarks themselves and the oscillations of the “bound” or “dead” quarks create space-time.
5. If space-time was there before Big Bang, galaxies could have had a centre.
6. If space-time was not there before big bang, collisions of stars and planets as Well as creation of new stars and planets would not have happened.
7. If space-time originated after big bang, there would have been no collision between the parts that spewed forth in all directions of space.
8. It is because space-time existed before big bang, that a space traveler can optimize his space travel and reach other planets.
9. The creation of matter from quarks in the embryonic galaxy continue till Reduces the “pressure” and “drive”, thereby forming the spheroidal mass.
10. The combined oscillations of the bound quarks create the spheroidal, revolving Mother mass.
11. The “Mother mass “ejects mass in four directions forming the four (or more) Arms of the revolving “embryonic “galaxy.
12. It is possible that the mass spewing out into the four arms are due to the successive “explosions” of the mother mass and return of a mass equivalent to one-fourth At the centre, retaining the mass at the core.
13. The buildup in the centre continues till it reaches a critical thickness ,such as 20,000 light years in the case of our galaxy.
14. The primal bound-movement or “death-movement” and the resulting rotation makes the galaxy into an oblate disc
15. It is also a similar bound-movement or “death-movement” that makes stars and planets revolve around their current or original centres
16. The stars and planets succumbing to the gravitational force get shattered as star dust or get assimilated .
17. It is possible that the arms of a galaxy are decided by how much of matter is spewed out by some sort of internal “explosion” or sheer mechanical ejection. Thus we see spiral, lenticular, elliptical, cluster, globular ,irregular and other forms of galaxies.
18. If each Galaxy is taken as a “brahmam” then its lifetime is determined by the Active mass, energy ( and light ) in it.
19. As already said, the stars and planets which cannot maintain or emit heat and light are relegated to the “dead” category.
20. If these “dead” or byegone planets and stars collide, they can give rise to new stellar systems giving heat and light.
Similarities Between Chain Bang approach and Modern Cosmology

There are lots of inhomogeneities in the contemporary cosmology theories,most of it are partial truths though. But if we pick up the threads from the Chain Bang approach, it is perhaps possible to fill the voids.

1. Science tells that our Universe was born and reached a near-mature size within The first trillionth of a second of its birth from nothing. Chain Bang sutras say that the unmanifest became manifest .

2. The Neutron Ball concept of LeMaitre can be patched up with the Chain Bang but not with the Big Bang that cause for the universe.

3. Chain Bang concepts can also accommodate the spiral arms of the galaxies and the bang or explosion generate only the galaxy. But not the entire universe.

4. Hubble Law is interpreted as due to the expansion of the Universe. From the Chain Bang perspective, it is only a temporary phenomenon in space-time. After a Brama age, the devolution happens and the manifest Galaxy disappears.

5. Space-time was born post –big bang in the theory,but one is tempted to infer from Chain Bang that Space-time was existent prior to the union of quarks leading to the Neutron Ball explosion.

6. Alan Guth’s Inflationery theory posits the expansion of the universe from “near zero” to 1050 of its original size, after the explosion” ,but Chain Bang may place this expansion before the bang.

7. Gravitation is the cause for the structural and dependence ,such as rotation, revolution, among objects, but may explain it away as due to “primal motion” of the “bonded objects”.

8. Models based on Einstein’s GR the expansion is governed by the space-time. Geometry as well as the mass or energy in it. Chain Bang concepts seemingly. Indicate that expansion rate depends on the power of the “bang”.

9. String theory extends the four dimensional Galaxy into one with ten, fifteen or more dimensions. Chain Bang is comfortable with almost infinite dimensions.

10. That the Galaxy is continually expanding appears different from the Chain Bang concept of cyclic Galaxy, where every trend is bound to repeat, albeit over time, and relatively.

Due to collisions between galaxies, stellar masses, planets or between any of these there are areas where motions are not uniform. But within a galaxy, as most of the masses revolves around the centre of the galaxy the chances of collisions are generally less for stellar masses which follow such or parallel paths. But conceivably, when the (spiral) arms of different Galaxies collide, the forces and the impact of collisions reach the acme. It is like one spinning wheel intersecting the other. And the debris can travel in umpteen possible trajectories. Many of the comets and meteors we see and hear about are part of such debris.

Assuming gravitation is the cause of all these phenomena,graviton is said to be the masless particle that mediates gravitational forces. And physics thus can be used to Surmise that such graviton exchange between Sun and Earth is causing the latter to Revolve around Sun.

But if we involve the concept of “death movement” in Chain Bang wherein we said the binding or bonding acted upon by forces of liberation causes vibration,rotation or revolution of the bodies involved.

The Age Of The Brahmam , the Galaxy

The manifest Universe came from the unmanifest. The Brahmic Age is the birth-to-dissolution time of this Galaxy. As per brahmic concepts, there is a continuous equilibrium between the evolution and devolution right from the start. When , and if, all the stars of a galaxy dies out. the galaxy can also be deemed to have an end. A brahmic concept superimposes a “purpose” of the brahman on the unfolding universe, and without the stellar light, the existence of the galaxy is void.

According to Brahma Sutras, the age of the galaxy is One Hundred and Twenty Brahma Years.

AB line in figure 15 shows the origin to end of space time on x-axis as time. AC Shows the percentage of the manifest world (or Space) on y- axis CB .CB shows the percentage of the remaining world as the dissolution progresses. At B space-time ends and one Brahma-Age ends.

Brahma ends in one Brahma-Yuga or Brahma age. Any galaxy in the in the universe has its own origin, existence, death, space and time. The dissolution happening in three ways.

1. Nuclear fission
2. Nuclear Fusion
3. Radioactive disintegration

Low life cycle time compared with the life cycle time of the Universe. Similarly the life cycle of a star such as sun has smaller life span than the galaxy. This is because, the energy loss per unit area is more for sun than for the entire galaxy.

It is possible to explain the stages of evolution of earth as well as the human civilization based on the intensity orquality of sunlight falling on earth. The ancient vedic method is classifying these periods as Tetra-Cycles or Chatur –Yugas or simply four ages.

These are Krita Yuga in the beginning, followed by Threta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. It is often said that there is a pattern of decline (not evolution, as is currently “established” by evolutionists) of the Humanity’s Prowess as well as Intutive and Intellectual powers .

In ancient times it is said that listeners got the puorport and the meaning of Vedas on mere hearing. In Taithiriopanishad there are references to five levels of meaning of Vedas.

These are (1) Based on Divine Spaces (2) Based on Divine principles (3)Based on All Trades and Professions (4) Relating to All forms of Life (5) Realating to Soul and Super Soul.

By the third quarter of Krita Yuga the intellectual prowess of men had diminished,and so did the number of men who could grasp the purport and import of vedic subtlities.

And then came the practice of condensing the vedic annotations and restricting the
Level of meanings to three planes called Divine (Aadi daivikam), Material (Aadi Bhouthikam) And Spiritual (Adhyatmikam) .

By the distortions that happened in Kritha yuga, there arose avarice, which gave rise to competition, followed in turn by stealth, lust, anger, pride, aggression, rudeness, taking life,

Fear, sorrow, anxiety. Then the “powerful” started exploiting the “powerless”. To circumvent the big fishes- eat- small fishes syndrome, ancient rishis introduced the four class system in society, introducing kings as the social guardians of justice. By this the material import of the Vedas were lost, taking Vedas into a confined, ritualistic sense. It is possible that divine and sacrificial rituals were introduced by the end of Threta yuga, giving worshipful form to the “spirit” of Water, Air, Sun, Moon and so on.

The heart of astrology which was prevalent those times too, is that it can predict the influence of stars and planets on the aspects of will, intellect, emotions, bodily humours, actions and status of life of an individual, or even a group or a community. This is the driving motivation for millions of individuals and families in India still consult, traditional exponents in astrology for decision making. This also implies that the decay of the energy levels of the Sun ,Stars and the planets will definitely affect the aspects mentioned above, including the levels of enlightenment. It is thus understandable why each of the yugas are said to represent a particular type or level of enlightenment. The powers of purity, passion, and “perversion” change across these yugas. Figure 15 thus attempts to explain this fall from highest enlightenment to the lowest.

Figure 15 divides the Cosmic cycle into the above said “Quareter Ages” such as, Krita, Threta etc. The line CB shows the decline of purity ( Satwik Quality) which is due to its replacement increasingly by passion and aggression (or Rajasok Qualities) and later by Perversion (or Tamasic Qualities).If Nostradamus is right ,the decline of civilsation should result in a cataclysmic war and annihilation. In those near-apocalypse days, he predicts ,raining of fire from the skies, drying of earth, imbalance of ecosystem, vanishing of rainbows for forty years as well as a large toll of humanity due to draught and the cracked dry earth .He also predicts an age of peace and tranquility on earth after this destruction.

In this current last Quarter Age of Kali Yuga, as per the Vedic system ,due to ascendance of dark forces, an event as predicted above cannot be ruled out. The end of Kaliyuga will lead to the cycle of “Quarter Ages” to repeat ,starting from Dwapara Yuga. One Yuga is the time taken between two periods of coincidence of all planets under one zodiac sign. This period for Krita Yuga it is four times that of 432,000 years, (ie 1,728,000) and thrice that of 432,000 years for Threta yuga (ie,1,29,6000 years) and twice that of 432,000 years for Dwapara yuga (ie, 864,000 years) and equal to 432,000 years for the current Kali yuga .

In vedic cosmogony One cycle of all the four Quarter Ages is called a Maha Yuga of 3,153,600 years, and hundred Maha Yugas make One Kalpa,360 Kalpas make One Year of Lord Brahma who functions as the Lord of Creation under the absolute Lord. 120 such years make lifetime of Brahma..Currently. Also 14 Manvantaras is one Kalpa.

VEDIC COSMOGONY In vedic cosmogony one Kalpa , is equal to 4.32 billion years, a "day of Brahma" or one thousand mahayugas, measuring the duration of the world (scientists estimate the age of the Earth at 4.54 billion years). Each kalpa is divided into 14 manvantara periods, each lasting 71 yuga cycles (306,720,000 years). Preceding the first and following each manvatara period is a juncture (sandhya) the length of a Satya-yuga (1,728,000) years. Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma. A "month of Brahma" is supposed to contain thirty such days (including nights), or 259.2 billion years. According to the Mahabharata, 12 months of Brahma (=360 days) constitute his year, and 100 such years the life cycle of the universe. Fifty years of Brahma are supposed to have elapsed, and we are now in the shvetavaraha-kalpa of the fifty-first; at the end of a Kalpa the world is annihilated.

By these calculations the life of Brahma seems fantastic and interminable, but from the viewpoint of eternity it is as brief as a lightning flash. Brahma lives one hundred of such "years" and then dies. These "hundred years" total 311 trillion 40 billion (311,040,000,000,000) earth years. In the Causal Ocean there are innumerable Brahmas rising and disappearing like bubbles in the Atlantic (From Wikipedia) .


Pranan – Reiki-In the light of Quantum Physics

According to modern physics, matter is the condensed form of energy. (Modern Physics is also known as Quantum Physics, particle physics, High-speed physics etc.) That is, matter has no independent existence. In modern physics, four energy fields are determined as basic realities-weak nuclear field, strong nuclear field, Electromagnetic field and Gravitational Field. In any particular energy level, the first three attain similar nature and combine to form a single field. This single energy field is known as Grand Unified Field. (The corresponding energy level is knows as Grand Unification Energy). Thus, the four energy fields are reduced to two.

Quantum physics is capable of explaining all the phenomena related to weak nuclear field, strong nuclear field and Electromagnetic Field. But, its laws are not applicable to Gravitational Field.
The principle of Relativity is that applicable in Gravitational Field. At present, a galaxy can be totally understood and explained only with the help of both Quantum Physics and Theory of Relativity. That is, out knowledge is not proper.


So, scientists now aim to explain all the galactic phenomena using a single theory, including the Gravitational Field in the Grand Unified Field. This single energy field can be called Death Field or Ultimate Quantum Field.
All matter in the galaxy are expressions of this field. Quantum entanglement is the cause of Death Movement and thereby the cause of Time.

According to Fritjof Capra, in his book ‘The Toa of Physics’, this kind of single field is the Brahmam, which is omniscient and omnipotent. This is an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and eastern philosophy.
In prashnopanishath (6.4), it is explained as below, that Reiki or Life is the foundation of the basis and evolution of everything present in a galaxy.

“Reiki is Hiranyagarphan caused for the creation of a galaxy. It is from ‘Reiki that sky, air, light, water, earth, sense-organs etc. were born.

This Reiki has 2 states. Macro and Micro. Matter is born from Macro. Reiki is the energy in Micro-level. Modern man is using this energy to heal diseases and abnormalities.

Upanishad states that life takes shape from soul; the factors of a galaxy form from life; these factors unite to form a galaxy; and such galaxies together constitute the universe.
In 2003 came experimental evidence of a five-quark combination which is being called a pentaquark.

So, scientists now aim to explain all the galactic phenomena using a single theory, including the Gravitational Field in the Grand Unified Field. This single energy field can be called Death Field or Ultimate Quantum Field.
All matter in the galaxy are expressions of this field. Quantum entanglement is the cause of Death Movement and thereby the cause of Time.

According to Fritj of Capra, in his book ‘The Toa of Physics’, this kind of single field is the Brahmam, which is omniscient and omnipotent. This is an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and eastern philosophy.
In prashnopanishath (6.4), it is explained as below, that Reiki or Life is the foundation of the basis and evolution of everything present in a galaxy.

“Reiki is Hiranyagarphan caused for the creation of a galaxy. It is from ‘Reiki that sky, air, light, water, earth, sense-organs etc. were born.

This Reiki has 2 states. Macro and Micro. Matter is born from Macro. Reiki is the energy in Micro-level. Modern man is using this energy to heal diseases and abnormalities.

Upanishad states that life takes shape from soul; the factors of a galaxy form from life; these factors unite to form a galaxy; and such galaxies together constitute the universe.
In 2003 came experimental evidence of a five-quark combination which is being called a pentaquark.

'Work done by a Japanese team led by Takashi Nakano of Osaka University involved bombarding a carbon target with X-rays and led to a report of pentaquark evidence in 2002. According to modern particle physics ,Quarks interaction is mediated by gluons,very much as a photon is mediating the interaction between an electron and a proton,while for leptons such as electrons and mesons, the interaction is mediated by W Bosons,and for neutrinos it is mediated by Z Bosons.

Thus it can be summarized that it is quark, lepton, neutrino types of fundamental matters interacting with the help of gluons, photons, Bosons.

These variations of elementary particles and their nature of union and disunion can be looked at as the “vikrithis” or variations of nature,from the vedic point of view.

In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin-yang is used to describe how seemingly opposite or contrary forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world; and, how they give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. Yin and yang are actually complementary, not opposing, forces, interacting to form a whole greater than either separate part; in effect, a dynamic system.

The union of positive u,u and the negative d quarks to form a Baryon. When the Yin depletes or emits energy, it is supplemented by the Yang part.

Primordial Matter

Since it is the union of the positive quarks with the negative quarks that makes the first manifest form of matter. Philosophically, union of Quarks, destroys their individuality,or causes death-entanglement from their individual existence. This “death-entanglement” can be thought of as a cause for their remaining energy to manifest “outbound oscillations for escape” resulting in the motion of the New Proton.

Chapter 2




The Chain Bang Theory is introduced here diagrammatically, with its entire harmony.

As we know, all the phenomena as well as matter present in the universe are the different forms of energy. These are broadly classified as visible and invisible. According to scientists, 73% of the universe is invisible energy, 23% is invisible matter and 4% is visible matter. But, in science, there is no place for the factors like Universal Soul, Soul, Life, pranan etc. Even then, in this scientific area, we must choose the contents energy as the base for the creation of galaxies.

As a galaxy meets its end due to the all-destroying-flood at the end of an age, the released energy gets added to the pool of invisible energy. As the density of this pool crosses a certain limit, it changes into invisible matter. As the density of this pool crosses a certain limit, it changes into visible matter. This process is known as origination.
The ratio between invisible energy and invisible matter deviates with time. This deviation along with the increase in density is collectively called ‘Vikaram’ in Brahmasutram.

What happens actually is, this ‘Vikaram’ changes into pressure and in this pressure, invisible energy becomes invisible matter and as more pressure builds up, the invisible matter becomes visible matter. The invisible-visible energy state in the galaxy is shown below, diagrammatically.


Both the ancient Indian philosophy and the modern science have the same opinion that the invisible nature is the reason behind visible nature. Their opinions differ only in the structure and distribution of visible nature. A figure is shown below in which the structure and distribution of invisibility and visibility are shown, without considering the differences in philosophy and science.


.In the figure, AX line represents the invisibility and BX line represents the visibility, in their completeness. From this figure, we can gain knowledge of the stand-points of science and philosophy. The harmony and disharmony between them also can be analyzed.

The completeness of energy is there, both in the invisibility and visibility. So, any energy level can be included here.
As we are aware now, visible nature is a product of invisible nature. According to science, the basic matter is ‘super-string’. They from ‘quarks’. There are 2 kinds of quarks. ‘UP Quarks’ with positive charge and ‘Down Quarks’ with negative charge. If two up Quarks combine with a Down Quark, a positively charged quark forms. When 2 Down Quarks combine with one UP Quark, a negatively charged quark is formed. When such a positive quark combines with a negative quark, visible matter is produced.

These quarks combine together in various fashions, causing diversity in matter, thus formed. The quarks known as ‘Charmed’, ‘strange’, ‘Bottom’ and ‘Top’ give intensity to this diversity. This is how nature gains its unnaturalism.
Fusina of China called such positive energy as Yang and negative energy as Yin. He introduced these energies as a pair of dragons, contained within a circle. If one dragon loses energy, the other one provides it the adequate share of energy.

This is the foremost model of matter or atom.



The First Model of Matter

As the positive and negative quarks combine together, matter is produced. That is, the quarks disappear and a third entity appears, the matter. Combination of positive and negative quarks means, their death. The struggle before this death causes motion. Motion creates time. Since this struggle is the first phenomenon in the universe, we can assume that ‘time’ is also the first phenomenon in the universe.

Along with the death of quarks, ‘space’ is formed. As positive – negative quarks combine together to become one, they lose their differences, and a sphere with uniformity of space is evolved. This process is given in the figure shown below. The peculiarity of this space is that, it continues its Death Movement. Since the rotation of our Milky Way galaxy is towards the left, we can assume that the Death Movement is towards left.



By ‘Vikaram’ and pressure, quarks combine together and become a part of ‘The Primary Mass [or the space - Time] and expands to equal to the energy of our galaxy, at such a stage of the Neutron ball or Mass, it explodes.
The Primary Mass had split to four parts, prior to its explosion. The mass that was split thus, is shown in the next figure.









Figure No.6 shows the four parts of mass that cause the four ‘Hasthams’ [hands], which move away from one another in four directions.

Each of these four parts, again splits into four parts in the second stage of explosion.

During this second stage, the Primary Mass Centre is created again. Along with that, the part of the mass in the maternal side moves towards the matenal spherical part, and the parts at the sides change into two arms and the part at the opposite side becomes the long exterior arm. Chain of explosions happen after this 2nd stage of explosion.

In fig.7, the parts that are marked as 1, move towards the maternal mass region. The parts marked as 2, move to the sides. Parts that are marked as 3, move outwards.

Since masses rotate according to the Death Movement, each mass not only rotates in its own zodiac, but revolve around its own maternal mass. The superior Mother Masses are revolved around, by their own off-springs.

The model of the plausible tertiary explosion



Now Our Galaxy existing, moving and rotating like this plan view

It is shown in fig 7A that, the 1st parts provide The Centre of the galaxy The second parts provide the disc-like shape to the galaxies. Third parts provide the curved expansion to the galaxies.

Serial explosions take place till each part attains a certain mass. During each explosion, one part moves towards the maternal mass side, two parts to the sides and one part to the exterior. During such motions, parts may collide with one another. Some get destroyed, and some combine together to form new masses.

There are many kinds of galaxies – Spiral galaxies, Lenticular galaxies, Elliptical galaxies, irregular galaxies, cluster galaxies, Globular Cluster galaxies etc. The reason behind such a variety, lies in the manner in which the primary Mass [ or the Sphere] explodes. The figures given below show the structure of our Milky Way galaxy as well as other galaxies. The Big bang is not applicable to the origin of universe, but only to the Galaxy. Each galaxies had its own sphere and big bang or explosion. Fred Hoel, Jayanthu Narlicker and Jeff Bridge proved that the cosmic microwave background radiation is not out come from the big bang, but is from stars and reflections from molecular clouds.

Galaxies Debris positions & movement of Our galaxy

Galaxy on the way as plate

Fig no: 7B

1 = Centre of our Galaxy
2 = Disc of our Galaxy
3 = Halo of our Galaxy



Big Bang Theory

Fig no: 7C

A = Place of Big Bang happened 
B = Debris at least distant
C = Debris at maximum distant
AB = Vacuum Space
BC = Debris moving on straight way
AC = Time
AB = Past time
BC = Present time and place

  If our Universe originated according to Big Bang Theory, the debris positions might have exist like the Fig.No.7C. Our Universe is not exist like this positions.So the concept Big Bang is not right at all.










































































Chapter 3



The branch of science that deals with the movement of plates in Earth’s crust, is known as plate Tectonics.

The thick layer of Earth’s crust is called Lithosphere. Once upon a time, Lithosphere was a single layer. Then it split into two, and later on split into seven parts. These parts are called plates. The plates are African plate, North American plate, South American Plate, Eurasian plate, Indo Australian plate and pacific plate. There are three more smaller plates known as Arabian, Nazca and Philippines. All these plates move in different directions with different speeds. The speed varies from 2cm to 10cm per year. In other words, their speeds of movement can be compared to the speed of growth of nails in our body.

Around 300million years ago, the surface of earth was divided into two continents. One was Gondwana Land and the other, Laurasia.

The present day plates the South America, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica- were included in the Gondwane Land. Present day North America and Eurasia were combined together as Laurasia.

Around 275 million years ago, Gondwane Land and Laurasia collided with each other to form a super continent called Pangea. During the last 170 millions of years, Plangea got divided into floating parts of different sizes.

According to science, the reason behind the floating of these continental plates is the thrust by the molten lava present inside the earth. But, actually the plates do not move because of this reason. There are seven more planets like our earth, in the solar system. Each has molten lava and volcanic eruptions. But none of them have moving plates on their crusts. So, we can assume that there is some other reason, than the thrust by lava.

The real reason relates to the ice-mountains which covered earth, a long time ago. As we know, ice is solid, and a solid substance is under the influence of Earth’s gravitational pull. This gravitational force is that which gives spherical shape to stars, planets and satellites. This force folds the flat-elongated parts of these bodies, so that they attain spherical shape. This results in the formation of plates and their movement.
Around 300 million years ago, surface of earth was covered by ice-mountains. As they started melting and moving away from the equatorial region, earth started losing its spherical shape. To regain the spherical shape from this egg-like shape, earth exerted extra-gravitational force along its North-South direction. This extra gravitational force caused the collision of Gondwana Land and Laurasia, and the drifting of plates in the East-west direction.
The melting of ice from the equatorial region towards the poles, which started around 300 million years ago, still continues. Remaining stock of ice on earth is available only at the poles-at Arctic and at Antarctic. The drifting of plates will continue, till all the ice on the earth melts away.

As far as earth is concerned, it tends to perpetuate its spherical shape. The factor that changes its spherical shape is the presence of ice. Solar heat is that, which changes the form of ice. When the luminosity of sunlight was 0.7, the whole of earth’s surface was covered with ice. Gradually the luminosity increased to 1 and as a result, ice at the equatorial region started melting. As the luminosity reaches 1.9, there will be no ice left on earth. By then, the drifting of plates and the resulting earthquakes will cease.

Now plates drift in the East-West direction. From this fact, we can assume that the reason for this drift is the gravitational pressure exerted on the equatorial region by the Arctic-Antarctic regions in the North and South poles of earth. Figure N0.18 shows the directions of drifting of plates.


Earth was a sphere, prior to the formation of ice. It could maintain the spherical shape even after it was covered by ice. The cross-sectional view of earth during ice-age is shown in fig.19.




As the luminosity of sun reached 1 from 0.7, ice started melting from the equatorial region, towards the poles. At present the luminosity is 1.4. It is continuously increasing. That is why, layers of ice melt away in Arctic and Antarctic. Figure No.20 given below, shows how the glaciers of Arctic and Antarctic keep earth in an egg-like shape. The same figure shows how the constant exertion of the gravitational forces tries to bring back earth to its spherical shape, by moving the plates.


Fig 20

Antarctic Region..................................................................


At present, the glaciers at Arctic and Antarctic regions deform the earth, by changing its spherical shape. The drifting of plates will cease, only when all the ice present on Earth melts away. During summer solstice, more ice is formed at Arctic. So, there is a possibility of annual, directional change in the drifting of plates.
If we press two opposite sides of an inflated balloon with our palms, the mid-region bulges out. Like that, the extra pressure exerted at the equatorial region by the Arctic-Antarctic poles makes the equatorial region bulge out. This results in the drifting of plates. The Himalaya was formed due to the collision between Gondwana Land and Laurasia, during such drifting.
Once the luminosity of sun decreases and reaches the 0.7 level, the Ice Age will return. The plates and continents will go back to their original positions.


Chapter 4

Summer Solstice and Winter Solstice


Science is still silent on solstice. During summer solstice, ice melts at Arctic and glaciers are formed at Antarctic. The reverse process happens during winter solstice. But, since solar heat increases, the formation of ice decreases and melting increases. This take place, year after year. That is why, sea-level is rising continuously. During solstices, the movement of plates depends on the melting and formation of ice.

Everybody agrees that, there is a reason behind solstice. But so far, no evidence could be put forward by science – not even a distant chance in this regard.
According to the first law of Newton, unless an external disturbance affect, a moving body continues its state of motion. But this law does not have any significance within sun. Because, sun moves back without any hindrance, after a certain limit.

As regarding the movement of sun, if there is no external obstruction, there must be an internal obstruction. The reason behind is that, there is a possibility of elastic gravitation in sun. Elastic gravitation means the dynamic gravitational force of matter. Even though sun appears spherical, it is actually in liquid state. Half the radius of sun is distinct from the gravitational stress region.

There must be a reason for the formation of planets from sun. It does not seem to be from an explosion of the sun. The logically correct explanation is that, some star or planet from external space may have hit sun and scattered some parts which became planets. As a result of this impact, sun moved in the opposite direction. In addition to that, there is a chance of keeping the giant star or planet which collapsed on the sun, from escaping the gravitational field of the sun. Due to the impact of the collision, the core centre of the sun moved with more speed than that of the outer region. But, the outer region pulled back the core centre by elastic gravitation. The core centre which moved backwards due to this action was again pulled back by the centre region after a certain limit. That is, along with the forward and backward motion of the core centre, due to elastic gravitational pull, the outer region follows this motion. Thus, solstice continues over time. The elasticity of liquid matter is the cause for the elastic gravitation

In zero Gravity, if an object is held at the centre of a ring with elastic bands and an impact is given on it, it moves to and fro continuously. But, the ring also moves after the object without stopping. The elastic band which binds the ring and the object together, pulls back whichever moves forward. The repetition of this may be the reason behind the continuing motion. This is like the constant side-wise movement of the pendulum of a clock. This is only a hypothetical model for the cause of sun’s solstice.

This opinion is approved by NASA in July8,2015. NASA point out that number of new stars in Sun.

The news is as follows :



Flaring, active regions of our sun are highlighted in this new image combining observations from several telescopes. High-energy X-rays from NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) are shown in blue; low-energy X-rays from Japan's Hinode spacecraft are green; and extreme ultraviolet light from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is yellow and red.

All three telescopes captured their solar images around the same time on April 29, 2015. The NuSTAR image is a mosaic made from combining smaller images.

The active regions across the sun’s surface contain material heated to several millions of degrees. The blue-white areas showing the NuSTAR data pinpoint the most energetic spots. During the observations, microflares went off, which are smaller versions of the larger flares that also erupt from the sun's surface. The microflares rapidly release energy and heat the material in the active regions.

NuSTAR typically stares deeper into the cosmos to observe X-rays from supernovas, black holes and other extreme objects. But it can also look safely at the sun and capture images of its high-energy X-rays with more sensitivity than before. Scientists plan to continue to study the sun with NuSTAR to learn more about microflares, as well as hypothesized nanoflares, which are even smaller.

In this image, the NuSTAR data shows X-rays with energies between 2 and 6 kiloelectron volts; the Hinode data, which is from the X-ray Telescope instrument, has energies of 0.2 to 2.4 kiloelectron volts; and the Solar Dynamics Observatory data, taken using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, shows extreme ultraviolet light with wavelengths of 171 and 193 Angstroms.

Note the green Hinode image frame edge does not extend as far as the SDO ultraviolet image, resulting in the green portion of the image being truncated on the right and left sides.

Link to associated news item



The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, an M5.6-class, peaking at 3:33 a.m EDT on Aug. 24, 2015. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel. Credit: NASA/SDO

SDO captured this image of the mid-level flare, an M6.6-class, on June 22, 2015.

Credits: NASA/SDO

View full disk image



The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 2:23 p.m. EDT on June 22, 2015. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.

To see how this event may affect Earth, please visit NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center at http://spaceweather.gov, the U.S. government's official source for space weather forecasts, alerts, watches and warnings.

This flare is classified as a M6.6 flare. M-class flares are a tenth the size of the most intense flares, the X-class flares. The number provides more information about its strength. An M2 is twice as intense as an M1, an M3 is three times as intense, etc.

Updates will be provided as needed.

What is a solar flare?

For answers to this and other space weather questions, please visit the Spaceweather Frequently Asked Questions page.

Related Links

View Past Solar Activity



The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, an M7.9-class, peaking at 4:16 a.m. EDT on June 25, 2015. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured an image of the event.





Rhett Herman & Tsunefumi Tanaka

- Radford University in Virginia offer this explanation


Every object in the universe--from a basic star to an exotic black hole--spins, and the origin of that spin can be traced back to the very beginning of time. Within instants after the Big Bang, the primordial fireball of energy expanded at an incredible speed, then later cooled and solidified into all the matter in the universe. Had this fireball been uniform in all directions, everything we see today would be completely homogeneous: There would be a perfectly uniform distribution throughout space of primordial hydrogen and helium, and cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR).

But this fireball was not perfectly uniform, as satellite observations of the CBR show. Some regions were denser than others, and some expanded more rapidly. The denser regions in the universe began to collapse under their own gravitational force, forming the clumps of matter that became giant cosmic structures. An example is the Great Attractor, a huge wall of galaxy clusters that stretches hundreds of millions of light-years across and is located nearly half a billion light-years away from us.

The spin of such cosmic objects is described by a conserved quantity called angular momentum, which accounts for both the speed of the rotating mass and its distance from the spin axis. The largest clumps of matter in the universe had an initial angular momentum--and these clumps broke up into ever smaller clumps, forming smaller clusters of galaxies, groups of galaxies, individual galaxies, solar systems within galaxies and ultimately, individual stars and planets. The smaller clumps each got their own share of the original total angular momentum, continuing down in scale so that everything today has some spin. This process is much like the continuing breakup of turbulent water, spinning off ever smaller individual vortices, each with its own characteristic angular momentum.

For example, in our own solar system, both the planets and our sun spin in the same direction because they were formed from the same primordial cloud of gas and dust. (One of the exceptions to this general trend is Uranus, which may have been knocked over onto its side by some titanic collision in its distant past.) The planets orbit the sun in the same direction in which the sun spins. So, too, moons formed at the same time as their respective planets orbit those planets in the same direction as the planet's spin.

Black holes formed after the Big Bang as stars evolved and died. And because the stars that created the black holes were originally spinning, so were their progeny. Indeed, even though stars eventually run out of nuclear fuel, they maintain their spin after death.

When stars are in the midst of their normal life cycles, their hot lower layers exert enough pressure to support the tremendous weight of their upper layers. But once stars run out of fuel and their fusion reactions end, they can no longer hold up this weight and collapse onto themselves. In the supernova explosions that precede the formation of black holes, some of the mass of the star is blown off, carrying away part of the total angular momentum of the star. The remaining matter falls towards the center of the star, spinning faster and faster as it goes. Just as a skater who brings his arms closer to his sides speeds up, so, too, a collapsing star winds itself up and spins faster when it is contracting. This acceleration enables the universe to conserve its total angular momentum; as matter falls in closer to the spin axis, it must increase in speed.

By the time this matter has fallen past the point of no return, called the event horizon, it has concentrated the angular momentum of the black hole into a very small volume, which greatly distorts the surrounding space-time. The angular momentum persists even after the matter that caused it has cut itself off from our universe, collapsing beyond the event horizon.

Presently, a team of researchers at Stanford University is designing the Gravity Probe satellite to measure the distortion of space-time due to the angular momentum of our own spinning Earth. Although the space-time distortion near Earth is exceedingly weak compared to that around a black hole, the same physics are at work. Measuring this distortion would offer further support for Einstein's Theory of General Relativity.




GREAT ATTRACTOR. The core has been identified as galaxy cluster Abell 3627, which appears both in a visible-light image (background)and in x-ray observations(contours). Such giant cosmic structures spun out from the Big Bang, retaining a part of the early universe's initial angular momentum.







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